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Vologda is located on the bank of the Vologda River. Important railways (connecting Moscow with Arkhangelsk, Vorkuta and Vologda with St. Petersburg) cross in Vologda. Besides, the federal highway M-8 Moscow – Arkhangelsk goes through the city.

The population of Vologda is 309,9 thousand people (2010). It has been decreasing since 1980s because of negative migration dynamics, decrease in birth rate and death rate growth. But now the demographic situation in Vologda has altered radically thanks to the development of the city.

The climate of Vologda is temperate continental. Winter lasts for 5 long moths but it strikes with its mildness. Spring, summer and autumn are cool; the warmest month is July, the coldest December and January. The largest amount of precipitation falls in summer and autumn when it rains, approximately 500 mm per year.

The average annual wind speed is 3,5 m/s. The average annual air humidity makes up 80%. The average annual air temperature is 2,8 degrees Celsius above zero.

The transport network includes an airport, a railway junction, an extensive automobile network, river transport.

At present Vologda is one of the most well-preserved ancient cities of the country, national patrimony of the Russian people according to the specialists’ opinion. It is among 116 Russian cities with especially valuable historical heritage and among 42 cities of Russia the architectural appearance of which is taken under special control of the federal authorities.